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Publications and presentations

February 2014   Bazargani YT, Ewen M, de Boer A, Leufkens HGM, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK (2014)
Essential medicines are more available than other medicines around the globe.
PLoS ONE 9(2): e87576. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087576

Whyte P, Hall C. Review Series of Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions: Working Paper 6:
The role of health technology assessment in medicine pricing and reimbursement
WHO/HAI 2014.

WHO/HAI Policy briefs on:
1: External reference pricing
2: The role of health insurance in the cost-effective use of medicines
3: The regulation of mark-ups in the pharmaceutical supply chain
4: Competition policy
5: Sales taxes on medicines
6: The role of health technology assessment in medicine pricing and reimbursement

August 2013   Kotwani A, Holloway K.
Access to antibiotics in New Delhi, India: implications for antibiotic policy
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice 2013, 6:6† doi:10.1186/2052-3211-6-6
September 2013   The Global Partnership for Development: The Challenge We Face. Millenium Development Goal 8.
MDG Gap Task Force Report 2013
October 2012   Medicine procurement prices and processes in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). UNRWA 2011.
Abstract published by The Lancet 8 October 2012
September 2012   The Global Partnership for Development: Making Rhetoric a Reality. Millenium Development Goal 8. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2012
June 2012   Kaplan WA et al. Policies to promote use of generic medicines in low and middle income countries: A review of published literature, 2000-2010. Health Policy (2012)
February 2012   Cameron A, Bansal A, Dua T, Hill S, Moshe S, Mantel-Teeuwisse A, Saxena S. Mapping the availability, price and affordability of antiepileptic drugs in 46 countries. Epilepsia 1-8,2012 doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03446.x
February 2012   NiŽns LM, Van de Poel E, Cameron A, Ewen M, Laing R and Brouwer WBF (2012) Practical measurement of affordability: an application to medicines.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2012:90:219-227
June 2011    Cameron A, Roubos I, Ewen M, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Leufkens HGM, Laing RO. Differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in the public and private sectors of developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(6):279-287.
May 2011   Espin J. Rovera J. Review Series of Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions: Working Paper 1: External reference pricing. WHO/HAI 2011.

Faden L, Vialle-Valentin C, Ross-Degnan D, Wagner A. Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions: Working Paper 2: The Role of Health Insurance in the Cost-Effective Use of Medicines. WHO/HAI 2011.

Ball, D. Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions: Working Paper 3: The Regulation of Mark-ups in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain. WHO/HAI 2011.

Hawkins, L. Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions: Working Paper 4: Competition Policy. WHO/HAI 2011.

Creese A. Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions: Working Paper 5: Sales Taxes on Medicines. WHO/HAI 2011.

August 2010   NiŽns LM, Cameron A, Van de Poel E, Ewen M, Brouwer WBF, et al. (2010) Quantifying the Impoverishing Effects of Purchasing Medicines: A Cross-Country Comparison of the Affordability of Medicines in the Developing World. PLoS Med 7(8): e1000333. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000333
June 2010   Kotwani A. Editorial: access to essential medicines and standard treatment for chronic diseases. Indian J Pharmacol June 2010; 42(3):127-8.
June 2010   Van Mourik MSM, Cameron A, Ewen M, Laing RO. Availability, price and affordability of cardiovascular medicines: A comparison across 36 countries using WHO/HAI data. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2010, 10:25doi:10.1186/1471-2261-10-25
April 2010   Madden JM, Meza E, Ewen M, Laing RO, Stephens P, Ross-Degnan D. Measuring medicine prices in Peru: validation of key aspects of WHO/HAI survey methodology. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010;27(4):291Ė9.
September 2009   Strengthening the Global Partnership for Development in a Time of Crisis. Millenium Development Goal 8. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2009
May 2009   Kotwani A. Availability, price and affordability of asthma medicines in five Indian states. Int J Tub Lung Dis Vol 13, Number 5, pp. 574-579(6)
April 2009   Kotwani A, Gurbani N, Sharma S, Chaudhury R. .Insights for policymakers from a medicine price survey in Rajasthan. Indian J Med Res 129, pp 451-454
April 2009   Costs, availability and affordability of diabetes care in the Philippines. Michiyo Higuchi
December 2008   Medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components: a synthesis report of medicine price surveys undertaken in selected countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, WHO EMRO / HAI
8 December 2008   Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis. A. Cameron, M Ewen, D. Ross-Degnan, D. Ball, R. Laing. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 1 December 2008 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61762-6
November 2008   Direct costs and availability of diabetes medicines in low- and middle-income countries. B.Volman
4 September 2008   

Delivering on the Global Partnerships for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Millenium Development Goal 8. UN MDG Gap Task Force

HAI press release

November 2007   Steinbrook, R. Closing the affordability gap for drugs in low-income countries N Eng J Med 2007;357:1996-9
May 2007    Kotwani A, Ewen M, Dey D, Iyer S et al.Prices and availability of common medicines at six sites in India using a standard methodology. Indian J Med Res 125, May 2007, pp 645-654.
April 2007   Mendis S. et al (2007). The availability and affordability of selected essential medicines for chronic diseases in six low- and middle-income countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(4):279-287.
March 2007    Babar ZUD, Ibrahim MIM, Singh H, Bukahri NI, Creese A (2007). Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia. PLoS Med 4(3): e82 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040082
March 2007   Hill S (2007). Medicines prices and Malaysia—untangling the medicines web. PLoS Med 4(3): e149 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040149
November 2006   Peru Validation Study Report, WHO/HAI Project on Medicine Prices and Availability
10 June 2006   British Medical Journal (editorial): The great medicines scandal
rapid responses to the editorial
May 2006   Conducting a medicine pricing survey: experience and challenges
Zaheer Ud-Din Baber and Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim
Essential Drugs Monitor No. 34, 2005
December 2005   Price, availability and affordability. An international comparison of chronic disease medicines. WHO EMRO / HAI
November 2005   OECD Project on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy: A Taxonomy and Framework for Describing and Assessing Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies.
Draft proposals for discussion at a meeting to be held in Paris, 1-2 Dec 2005
June 2005   Surveying medicine situation in West Bengal (editorial)
Medicine availability, prices and affordability in West Bengal.
This article was written by Avijit Hazra, Santanu Kumar Tripathi and Dalia Day and reports on the survey they undertook in Sept/Dec 2004.
It was published in the Community Development Medicinal Units (CDMU) quarterly bulletin Rational Drug Use Bulletin, Volume 15, No. 2; April-June 2005.
May 2005   Pharmaceutical Tariffs: What is their effect on prices, protection of local industry and revenue generation? by Müge Olcay and Richard Laing.
Prepared for: The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health
March 2005   HAI Africa Fact Sheet: East African Community and a 10% Tax on Medicines.
Since this fact sheet was published The East African Community has removed the 10% tax imposed on imported medicines.
January 2005   9 countries from the WHO African region meet to analyse data from their Medicine Prices Surveys
September 2004     Medicine prices brochure
June 2004   Medicine prices: a new approach to measurement. Illustrative examples of results from pilot studies 2001-2002
May 2004   WHO's Essential Drugs Monitor (No. 33) contains a special supplement about the WHO/HAI medicines pricing project. The individual articles are downloadable in small files.
    Special Supplement on Medicine Prices
Andrew Creese sets the scene, explaining some of the realities and why
there is such a need to "shed light" on medicine prices.
    Kirsten Myhr explains the development and content of the new WHO/HAI
pricing methodology and the accompanying manual Medicine Prices - a new
approach to measurement.
    What results does a pricing survey offer investigators at country level?
Jeanne Madden gives a brief overview of the field survey process, explains the format of the Excel workbook for data entry, and discusses how to summarise results for many medicines within a sector and compare summary results in different sectors.
    Anita Kotwani and Jeanne Madden provide details of the survey undertaken in Rajasthan, India, which among other things showed the strength of the generics market in India. In both the private and NGO sectors, consumers are much more likely to find generic products than they are the originator brand of these essential medicines.
    Jeanne Madden, Kumariah Balasubramaniam & Isaac Kibwage explain how, by interviewing experts in local pharmacy systems and reviewing government policies, survey investigators try to separate the component parts of prices to the consumer.
    Zaheer-Ud-Din-Baber and M. Izham M. Ibrahim describe a study carried out in three Malaysian towns which investigated consumer attitudes on the affordability of medicines and compared drug prices at different retail pharmacies with the international reference price.
    Jeanne Madden's comparison of pilot survey results from different countries shows some quite dramatic results. In Peru, for example, originator brand drugs typically sell at more than 61 times the international reference price.
    The hidden costs of essential medicines are revealed by Libby Levison and Richard Laing as they discuss the effects of add-ons such as transportation and storage charges, import tariffs and taxes, and wholesale and retail mark-ups in nine countries. The authors focus on hidden costs which are under government influence and in particular those incurred in the procurement process. The data show that hidden costs can almost double the price of essential medicines between manufacturer and patient.
    Margaret Ewen runs through the new WHO/HAI medicine price database of results from those who have done pricing surveys using the new methodology.
    Margaret Ewen looks at the mix of policies that are needed to make medicines affordable and discusses the future of the WHO/HAI pricing project.
    A report on the first regional training workshop on medicine prices, held in Cairo in October 2003, which examined the new pricing methodology and looked at the viability of undertaking surveys in a number of countries in the region.
May 2003   Medicine prices: a new approach to measurement (first edition of the WHO/HAI pricing manual) Note: this edition has been superseded by the second edition
NCD Summit
Briefing Note: UN Summit on NCDs, Sept 2011
Medicine Prices Matters
Medicine Pricing Matters
Issue 6
Medicine Prices Matters
Medicine Pricing Matters Issue 5
Medicine Pricing Matters 4
Medicine Pricing Matters Issue 4
Medicine Pricing Matters 3
Medicine Pricing Matters Issue 3
Medicine Prices Matters
Medicine Pricing Matters Issue 2
Medicine Prices Matters
Medicine Pricing Matters Issue 1

Comments by Dr Gezairy (second from left), in his opening address at the World Health Assembly 2006 briefing: ‘The survey manual provides a useful tool to provide evidence for policy decisions and suggests several policy actions. It will be of help to all those who are interested in medicines prices and we all should be’ …… [referring to chronic disease mortality] ‘Those not listening now will have to listen in the future, and it is a good thing to take up the challenge’

WHO, WTO and WIPO joint technical symposium, 16 July 2010, Geneva
Opening address by Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General, WHO
Presentation: Medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components, Margaret Ewen, Health Action International
Presentation: Medicine procurement, selection, pre-qualification, pricing and monitoring of medicines, Dr Richard Laing, Essential Medicines and Pharmaceutical Policies, WHO

Geneva Health Forum, 26-27 May 2008
Presentation: Direct costs and availability of diabetes medicines in low-income and middle-income countries. Birgit Volman, WHO/HAI intern
Presentation: Medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components. Margaret Ewen, Health Action International

Health Insurance Seminar 'Challenges and Opportunities' Jordan 30-31 March 2008
Presentation: Medicine Prices Matter - to People and Insurance Companies given by Margaret Ewen, Health Action International

59th World Health Assembly, Geneva, Wednesday 24 May - briefing to delegates
Opening address, Dr Hussein Gezairy, Regional Director, WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office
Presentation: Medicines for chronic diseases: too costly, too scarce, too important to ignore. Margaret Ewen, Health Action International Europe
Presentation: Medicine availability, prices and affordability in West Bengal, India. Dalia Dey, Consumer Unity and Trust Society (CUTS), Kolkata, India
Presentation: 2nd line and recent ARVS Ė prices and access issues. Carmen Pťrez Casas, Medecins Sans Frontieres

38th Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmacological Society, held in Chennai, India, Dec 28-30 2005 Presentation: Prices, availability and affordability of medicines – international comparison of 29 surveys. Dr Richard Laing, WHO Geneva
and Presentation: Measuring medicine prices and availability – a new methodology and few Indian survey results. Dr Anita Kotwani, University of Delhi
Presentation: Medicine prices and affordability survey in West Bengal, India. Prof S. Tripathi, CDMU, West Bengal
Presentation: Medicine prices and methods of financing in South-East Asia. Dr K Weerasuriya, WHO SEARO
Poster: Medicine prices and availability in the State of Haryana. Dr G.L Singal, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Haryana
Poster: Measurement of medicine prices in Karnataka, India. PK Lakshmi and P Triveni (Drug Information Center, Karnataka State Pharmacy Council, Bangalore, Karnataka) and DA Gundu Rao and SB Gore (Karnataka State Pharmacy Council)

Conference on Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacovigilance held in Kazan, Russia, 12-14 October 2005.
Presentation: The prices of medicines worldwide & how they are determined (in Russian) given by Richard Laing, WHO Geneva

WHO Technical Briefing Seminar, held in Geneva, 19-23 September 2005.
Presentation: Medicine prices: measurement and findings in countries. Richard Laing and Gilles Forte, WHO Geneva
65th Annual Congress of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), held in Cairo, September 2005
Presentation: The prices of medicines worldwide and how they are determined. Margaret Ewen, Health Action International Europe
Presentation: Medicine prices in Kuwait.Douglas Ball, Dept of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University
Press releases
4 September 2008 HAI Millennium Development Goal 8.E
Essential medicines: the high price of health
20 May 2003 HAI Unaffordable Medicines
Data from New Pricing Manual Confirms Problem
Press responses to the Medicine Prices manual
21 May 2003 The Guardian Pricing policies exposed
By Sarah Boseley, Health editor.
21 May 2003
AFX Asia WHO issues manual highlighting drug pricing differences
20 May 2003
Associated Press Online U.N.: Medicine Prices Vary Dramatically
By Naomi Koppel
20 May 2003 Reuters News WHO advises poor nations how to buy cheaper drugs
31 May 2003 The Lancet Sparks fly over patents and vital drugs at world health assembly